Performing the Funeral Prayer over the deceased is a collective duty; if performed by some of those in the neighborhood of the deceased, the rest of them will not be accountable for it; it is still a recommended act to be observed by the rest of them. Yet, if all abandoned it, it will be a sin upon them all.
The conditions of the Funeral Prayer:
1-Intention; one must have the intention of performing it.
2- Facting the Qiblah.
3- Concealing one’s ‘Awrah when performing it.
4-The ritual purity of the one performing it.
5-Avoidance of any physical impurity.
6-The deceased must be Muslim.
7-Attending the funeral procession after the Funeral Prayer if they are in the neighborhood.
8-Being legally accountable.
The integral parts of the Funeral Prayer:
- Standing upright
-Reciting four Takbeers.
-Reciting the Soorah of Al-Faatihah.
-Asking Allaah The Almighty to confer His blessing upon the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
-Praying for the deceased.
-Ending the Prayer with Tasleem.
-Performing these integral parts in sequence.
The way the Funeral Prayer is performed:
The Funeral Prayer is to be performed in the following way: The Imam, or one performing it alone over a deceased person, should stand toward the chest of the deceased if a man and toward her middle if a woman. As for those led in prayer, they should stand behind the Imam, and it is recommended to stand in three rows. One begins with saying the opening Takbeer and then seek refuge with Allaah The Almighty from Satan, then recite Basmalah and then recite Al-Faatihah. After that, one is to say the second Takbeer and ask Allaah The Almighty to confer His blessing upon the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, just as it is recited in Tashahhud. Then, one is to say the third Takbeer and pray Allaah The Almighty for the deceased: “Allaahumma ighfir lahu warhamhu wa ‘aafihi wa a’fu ‘anhu, wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi’ madkhalahu waghsilhu bi’l-maa’ wa’l-thalj wa’l-barad, wa naqqihi min al-khataaya kama yunaqqa’ al-thawb al-abyad min al-danas. Allaahumma abdilhu daaran khayra min daarihi wa ahlan khayra min ahlihi wa Zawjan Khayran min Zawjih. Allaahumma adkhilhu al-jannah wa a’idhhu min ‘adhaab il-qabri wa min ‘adhaab il-naar. (O Allaah, forgive him and have mercy on him, keep him safe and sound and forgive him, honor the place where he settles and make his entrance wide; wash him with water and snow and hail, and cleanse him of sin as a white garment is cleansed of dirt. O Allaah, give him a house better than his house, a family better than his family and a wife better that his wife. O Allaah, admit him to Paradise and protect him from the torment of the grave and the torment of Hellfire.”
On the other hand, if the deceased is a child, the invocation will be as follows: Allaahuma Ij‘alhu lana faratan was slafan and thukhra (O Allaah, make him precede his parents (to paradise) and (let him be) saved).”
Afterwards, those performing the Prayer over the deceased must say the fourth Takbeer and wait a little then say one Tasleem, turning their faces to the right. If one recites five or six Takbeers, then there is not harm in this.
As for the one who missed a part of the Funeral Prayer, he should join the prayer performing what is left thereof with the congregation led by the Imam. Then, when the Imam ends prayer with Tasleem, one can perform the part one has missed is the same manner performed in this prayer. On the other hand, if one missed performing the Funeral Prayer over the deceased before the burial, one can perform it at his grave.