Principles related to the Names and Attributes of Allaah The Almighty

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Principles related to the Names and Attributes of Allaah The Almighty
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
All the Names of Allaah The Almighty are Most Beautiful and all of His Attributes are Sublime:
Allaah The Almighty says: {And to Allaah belong the best names.} [Al-A‘raaf: 180]
 
They are free from all defects and evils:
It was narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said while he was engaging in a private conversation with His Lord: “And evil is not from You.”[1]
 
None of His creation is similar to Him.
Allaah The Almighty says: {There is nothing like unto Him}[Ash-Shoora: 11]
 
He The Almighty also says: {Then is He who creates like one who does not create? So will you not be reminded?} [An-Nahl: 17]
 
Allaah The Almighty cannot be known except through the Noble Quran and Honorable Sunnah:
Allaah The Almighty says: {And of the people is he who disputes about Allaah without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening book [from Him], Twisting his neck [in arrogance] to mislead [people] from the way of Allaah. For him in the world is disgrace, and We will make him taste on the Day of Resurrection the punishment of the Burning Fire [while it is said]} [Al-Hajj: 8-9]
 
Speaking about Allaah The Almighty away from the truth of the Book and the authentic Sunnah is a gross sin.
 
Allaah The Almighty says: {And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Indeed, the hearing, the sight and the heart - about all those- [one] will be questioned.} [Al-Israa’: 36]
 
He The Almighty also says: {And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allaah a lie or denies His verses? Indeed, the wrongdoers will not succeed.} [Al-An‘aam: 21]
 
All of the creation cannot encompass Him in their knowledge in any way: 
Allaah The Almighty says: {But they do not encompass it in knowledge.} [Taa-Haa: 110]
 
Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: This also includes knowledge about His honorable attributes that no sent Messenger or illustrious angel can even know without Allaah's leave. Similarly, He The Almighty said: {And they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills.} [Al-Baqarah: 255],and He The Almighty also said: But they do not encompass it in knowledge.} [Taa-Haa: 110] (v.2, p.476) Taybah.
 
The Beauty of Allaah The Almighty, Greatness of His Names and Sublimity of His Attributes are far above to be counted by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and thus he found no way except to implore Him with his, peace and blessings be upon him, saying: “I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised Yourself.”[2]
 
Memorizing and preservation of the Beautiful Names of Allaah The Almighty:
Many scholars have discussed the idea of the preservation of the Beautiful Names of Allaah The Almighty for the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Whoever memorizes them will enter Paradise.”[3]
 
The opinions of the Scholars regarding that matter can be summed up as follows:
 
Learning and knowing their meanings.
Observing their rights through believing in them, testifying them and acting upon them.
Counting and learning them by heart and calling upon our Lord by them.
Calling upon Allaah The Almighty by His Beautiful Names:
Allaah The Almighty says: {And to Allaah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them.} [Al-A‘raaf: 180]
 
Invoking Allaah The Almighty by His Names and Attributes can be divided into three categories:
 
First:Invocation of request:
 
This is the most well known category. It is to ask Allaah The Almighty all of your needs, ask Him to bestow goodness and ward off harm such as asking Him for forgiveness, mercy, provision and so on.
 
For instance:
 
Asking Him for Forgiveness for He is the Oft-Forgiving such as the saying of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: Rabb ighfir li wa tubb ‘alayya innaka anta al-Tawwaab al-Raheem (O Lord, forgive me and accept my repentance, for You are the Acceptor of repentance, the Most Merciful).”[4]
Asking Him for Hibah (i.e. gift and grace) for He The Exalted The Superb Bestower such as the saying of Allaah The Almighty:
{Indeed, You are the Superb Bestower.}[Aal-‘Imraan: 8]
 
Asking Him for pardoning for he is the Oft-Pardoning such as the saying of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in the supplication of Laylat Al-Qadr: “Qooli: Allaahumma innaka ‘afuwwun tuhibb al-‘afwa fa’affu ‘anni (Say: "O Allaah! Verily, You are the Oft-Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.”[5]
Asking Him for healing for He is the Healer. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: Adhhib al-baas Rabb an-naas, wa’shfi anta al-Shaafi, laa shifaa’a illa shifaa’uka (Take away the pain, O Lord of mankind, and grant healing, for You are the Healer, and there is no healing but Your healing).”[6]
Second: Invocation of praise and commendation
 
It was narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “The best of invocation is Al-Hamdulillaah (praise to Allaah).”[7]
 
It is the invocation in which the slave declare his love to Allaah The Almighty and praise Him on His graces and blessings and praising Him as He should be praised with his Beautiful Names and Sublime Attributes.
 
For example: The invocation of the people of the Paradise when they are in the most perfect blessing and mercy and when their heart became full of the love of their Lord will be their saying: Al-Hamdulillaahi rabbi Al-‘Aalameen (Praise to Allaah, Lord of the worlds!).
 
Allaah The Almighty says: {Their call therein will be, "Exalted are You, O Allaah," and their greeting therein will be, "Peace." And the last of their call will be, "Praise to Allaah, Lord of the worlds!"} [Yoonus: 10]
 
Another Example: What the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:  “Allaahumma anta al-awwal fa laysa qablaka shay’un, wa anta al-aakhir fa laysa ba’daka shay’un, wa anta ath-thaahir fa laysa fawqaka shay’un, wa anta al-baatin fa laysa doonaka shay’un (O Allaah! You are The First, nothing is before You; The Last, nothing is after You; The Ascendant, nothing is above You; and The Intimate, nothing is below You.”[8]
 
And as the saying of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “Allaahumma ’Anta Rabbee laa ’ilaaha ’illaa ’Anta, khalaqtanee wa ’anaa ‘abduka (O Allaah, You are my Lord, there is none worthy of worship but You. You created me and I am your slave).”[9]
 
Third: The invocation of worship and faith:
 
It is to dedicate to Allaah The Almighty alone all of the acts of worship, trust, fear, hope, love, humiliation and so on.
 
As Allaah The Almighty says: {Say, [O Muhammad], "I only invoke my Lord and do not associate with Him anyone.} [Al-Jinn: 20] 
 
Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “I only invoke my Lord” means I only worship my Lord alone, and He has no partners. I seek His help; I put my trust in Him and do not associate with Him anyone.”[10]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[1] Reported by Muslim (771) on the authority of ‘Ali, may Allaah be pleased with him.
 
[2] Reported by Muslim.
 
[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
 
[4] Reported by At-Tayaalisi (2050), Ahmad (2/21), Abu Daawood (1516), At-Tirmithi (3434), Ibn Maajah (4814). Refer to As-Silsilah As-Saheehah (556).
 
[5] Reported by At-Tirmithi (3383), Ibn Maajah (3800), Ibn Hibaan (1/503) and Al-Haakim (846) on the authority of Jaabir, may Allaah be pleased with him. Al-Haakim deemed its Saheeh (authentic). Refer to Saheeh Jaami‘ At-Tirmithi (2694).
 
[6] Reported by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
 
[7]Reported by At-Tirmithi (3383), Ibn Maajah (380) and others on the authority of Jaabir, may Allaah be pleased with him. Al-Haakim deemed its Saheeh (authentic). Refer toSaheeh Jaami‘ At-Tirmithi (2694).
 
[8] Reported by Muslim.
 
[9] Reported by Al-Bukhaari.
 
[10] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (4/417).

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