Refuting those, who deny all the Attributes of Allah or deny some of them
Those who deny the Names and Attributes of Allah are of three categories:
1.Jahmiyah: They are the followers of Jahm Ibn Safwan and they deny all the Names and Attributes of
2.Mutazilah: They are the followers of Wasil Ibn Ataa, who deserted the circles of Hasan Basree. They affirm the Names of Allah as if they were just words without meaning, and they deny all the Attributes of Allah.
3.Ashaairah and Maturidiyah and those who follow them. They affirm the Names of Allah and some Attributes and deny some. The notion/pretext upon which they have built their Madhhab is, 'to refrain from any resemblance of Allah to His Creation.' They claim that sharing of the name, attribute and the meaning (between the creation and Allah) necessitates likeness in reality and this means resembling Allah with His Creation in their view. So, they have imposed the following two matters upon themselves:
a) Making Taweel (false interpretation) of the texts of the Names and Attributes of Allah from their apparent meaning, like interpreting the Face to mean His Essence, and His Hands to mean His Generosity.
b) Making Tafweed (leave the meaning to Allah) of the Names and Attributes of Allah to Him. So, they say, 'Allah alone Knows what it means,' along with their belief that they are not to be accepted upon their apparent meaning.
The first group known to have denied the Names and Attributes of Allah were some Arab pagans about whom Allah revealed, “Thus have We sent you (O Muhammad) to a community before whom other communities have passed away, in order that you might recite unto them what We have inspired you, while they disbelieve in the Most Beneficent (Allah).” [Soorah ar-Ra'd (13): 30]
The reason behind the revelation of this verse is that when the Quraysh heard the Messenger of Allah mention (Allah with the Name) Rahman (the Most Beneficent), they denied it. So, Allah revealed, “...while they disbelieve in the Most Beneficent (Allah).”
Ibn Jareer mentioned that it was during the treaty of Hudaibiyah, when the writer began to put into writing the treaty between the Quraysh and the Messenger of Allah, he started with, 'Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Raheem' (In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful). The Quraysh objected to it saying, 'We do not know who Rahmaan is.’
Ibn Jareer also reported from Ibn Abbas, 'The Messenger of Allah used to invoke (Allah) with the words, 'O Rahman, O Raheem.' The Mushrikeen said, 'He claims to call upon one, but he invokes two.' So, Allah revealed, “Say (O Muhammad), 'Invoke Allah or invoke the Most Beneficent (Rahmaan), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names.” [Soorah al-Isra (17): 110]
And Allah said in Soorah Furqan, “When it is said to them, 'Prostrate to the Most Beneficent (Allah)! They say, 'And what is the Most Beneficent?” [Soorah al-Furqan (25): 60]
So, these Mushrikeen are the predecessors of the Jahmiyah, Mu'tazilah and Asha'irah, and all those who deny about Allah what He has affirmed for Himself, or His Messenger has affirmed for Him from the Names and Attributes of Allah. What evil predecessors for evil successors...!