Second: The First Council of Constantinople
The First Council of Constantinople was formed in 381 C.E., to discuss Macedonius, the Arian who was the bishop of Constantinople, who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. He said, “The Holy Spirit is a divine work spread in the world, he is not a divine person, who is different from the Father and the Son.”
The council was formed by order of the emperor Theodosius I (D.395 C.E.). One hundred and fifty bishops were present, deciding to annul the Arian belief. In addition, they decided that the Holy Spirit is Allah’s (S.W) spirit and His life, and that he is the third hypostasis of the Trinity, and they added one passage to the Nicene Creed; thus, the Trinity became the official creed of Christianity.
There were many monotheists, who in spite of their minor contribution and presence refuted the Trinity and Jesus’ (PBUH) divinity even after the Nicene Council for many centuries, despite the existence of the church’s power and authority.
The reason for this minor contribution and presence was the existence of the Inquisitions and the churches’ power. It is enough here to mention some of these parties, whom the church considered heretics for denying Jesus’ (PBUH) divinity and the Trinity. They were the Nazarenes, the Arians, the Ebonites, the Apollinaris, and the Nestorians.
- The Church History, Eusebius, pp 130, 343