1. The masjid greeting prayer: it is to pray two raka’ahsafter entering the masjid such as the Holy Masjid unlesssomeone is coming for Hajj or Umra (minor hajj to Mecca), then he starts circumambulation.
2. Circumambulation prayer: after every seven rounds, one should pray two raka’ahs. In the first raka’ah one recites after Al-Fatihah: Surat Al-Kafirun, and in the second “Surat Al-Ikhlas”. Hence, it is better to pray behind Maqam Ibrahim (the standing post of Ibrahim) and if it is not possible, one can pray in any place even outside the masjid.
3. Istikhara (guidance prayer): if one wants to do something that is allowed, he can pray two raka’ahs besides the obligatory prayer then recite dua’a asking for goodness, narrated by Jabir bin `Abdullah: the prophet - PBUH- used to teach his companions to perform the prayer of Istikhara for each and every matter just as he used to teach them the Suras from the Qur’an He used to say,
“If anyone of you intends to do something, he should offer a two rak`ahs prayer other than the compulsory prayers, and after finishing it, he should say: O Allah! I consult You, for You have all knowledge, and appeal to You to support me with Your Power and ask for Your Bounty, for You are able to do things while I am not, and You know while I do not; and You are the Knower of the Unseen. O Allah If You know this matter (name your matter) is good for me both at present and in the future, (or in my religion), in my life and in the Hereafter, then fulfill it for me and make it easy for me, and then bestow Your Blessings on me in that matter. O Allah! If You know that this matter is not good for me in my religion, in my life and in my coming Hereafter (or at present or in the future), then divert me from it and choose for me what is good wherever it may be and make me pleased with it.”
else. Hence, it is allowed to repeat Istikhara multiple times and investigate the times of answering the dua’a such as the last third of the night.
● It can be performed in the time when prayers are not allowed if it is for something that is about to pass. However, if it is for something that is not about to pass then one cannot pray in the time when prayer is forbidden.
4. Eclipse Prayer: it is the prayer which is performed during the solar or lunar eclipse, and it is called for by saying (the prayer brings us together).
● It is prayed in al-masjid, and it includes two raka’ahs. In every raka’a there are two ruku, then the initial takbeer and one recites Al-Fatihah and another surah. Afterwards, one does ruku and stands up and recites again then does ruku and stands up then sujood , which is done in both raka’ahs.
● In sunnah: the prayer should be audible, reading should be elongated until the eclipse is gone and every rise is longer than the one before.
● It is sunnah to have a sermon after it.
● If one misses the prayer in congregation: one can pray it alone during the eclipse and cannot make it up after the eclipse.
5. Salaat al-istisqa: it is performed when asking for rain in the place of prayer and it includes two audible raka’ahs like Eid prayer.
● It has a sermon before or after it, and it is better to have the sermon before the prayer with supplication and dua’a.
● The imam turns his cloak inside out after dua’a and turns his palms and the worshipers raise their hands and continue to supplicate to Allah.
6. Funeral prayer: it has neither ruku nor sujood, it consists of four Takbeers. One raises his hands in the first Takbeer and recites Al-Fatihah and a surah, then a second Takbeer and says prayers for the Prophet – PBUH- in the same way mentioned in shahada. After that, one says the third Takbeer and recites dua’a for the dead, then the fourth Takbeer and recites dua’a also in secret and one can make more than four Takbeers.
● Afterwards, one does one tasleem from the right or two tasleems like in the prayer.
● If one misses the congregation prayer: he can pray it alone by standing near the head of the dead man and the middle part of the dead woman. This prayer can be performed at the grave after burial, and one can pray over the absentee who no one prayed for.
7. Prayer of the traveler: it is allowed for the traveler to shorten the prayers which consist of four raka’ahs: adh-Dhuhr prayer, al-’Asr prayer and Isha’a, into two raka’ahs if one is travelling. Also, one is allowed to combine between adh-Dhuhr and al-’Asr prayers, and between al-Maghrib and Isha’a prayer for the one who is travelling or if it is raining heavily or he is sick or to avoid embarrassment.