Conditions of the Prayer:
They are those on which the validity of the prayer depends. They are as follows:
2- Ablutions or what can take its place.
3- To be performed at its specified times.
The Thuhr (Noon) Prayer:Its specified time begins when the sun passes its meridian and declines westward. This specified time for the Thuhr Prayer continues until an object’s shadow becomes approximately the same in length as the object itself.
For example, bring a stick and fix it in the ground, where only 100 cm of it appears from the ground. Then watch the shade before, after and during the sun passes its meridian. If you find the shade before the sun passes its meridian (from the westward) is 200 cm and begins to decrease until it reaches 110 cm when the sun passes its meridian, then begins to increase (from the eastward) to become 110 cm, then it is the shadow and the beginning of its increase is the beginning of the time of Thuhr Prayer.
The ‘Asr (afternoon) Prayer:It begins when the time of the Thuhr Prayer ends i.e. when the shadow of an object is of the same length as the object itself, and continues until the sun sets.
The Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer:The time of the Maghrib Prayer begins when the sun sets and lasts until the red twilight ends (it will have whiteness mixed with redness. Then redness will disappear while pure whiteness will remain then disappear).
The Ishaa’ (Night) Prayer:The time specified for this prayer begins when the time of the Maghrib Prayer (i.e. the time during which it is performed) ends. Thus the time of the ‘Ishaa’ Prayer begins when the red twilight disappears and continues up to the half of the night.
The Fajr (Dawn) Prayer:The time of the Fajr Prayer begins with the true dawn (it is the whiteness that comes across horizon before the sunrise) and lasts until sunrise.
Whoever in a place that the signs of the beginning and ending of the times of Prayers cannot be accurately defined, he has to estimate their times by making analogy according to the nearest country in which the sun rises and sets every day. Whoever can accurately define such signs, then prayers becomes obligatory on him in their due times, regardless of the long and short time.
4-Facing the Qiblah (direction of prayer),the honorable Ka‘bah.
5-To conceal one’s ‘Awrah (1). As for the ‘Awrah of man, it is from his navel to his knees. As for that of the woman, it is all of her body except her face.
6-Intention;to intend performing an act of worship to draw near to Allaah The Almighty. The heart is real place of intention.
Whoever is unable to do one of such matter, then has to do whatever he is able, making best efforts in this regard: such as the one who is in place and cannot in any way define the direction of the Qiblah, then he has to do the best efforts, then prayer and he is obliged to do nothing, even if he find, after performing prayer, that he is mistaken.
As for the intention, it cannot be dropped in any way, while insanity drops obligations.
(1)‘Awrah: the private parts or the parts of the body which are illegal to expose to others; a males ‘Awrah is from the navel to the knees. As for a females ‘Awrah, it includes all her body in one view whereas in another it is all her body with the exception of her face and hands. (Translator)