The Call of the Prophets and Messengers to the Oneness of Allah (Glorious & Exalted)

Muhammad Alsayed Muhammad

Allah (Glorious & Exalted) sent His prophets and messengers to call the people to believe in Him and to confess to His Oneness, and that He has no equal and no partner in this Divinity, so that He Alone (Noble & Sublime) should be worshipped.  As we pointed out, Allah (Glorious & Exalted) created man to have faith in Him and His Oneness, so that there is no contradiction between what the messengers called to and how people were created in terms of belief in Allah (Mighty & Majestic) and His Oneness.  That is because the God Who created man on faith in Him and His Oneness is Himself the God Who sent His prophets and messengers to call the people to the nature of their creation and to remind them of it, out of compassion and mercy from Him (Blessed & Exalted). In doing so, He presented them with authoritative proof, either for or against them, in His Wisdom and Justice (Noble & Sublime).  Then Allah (Glorious & Exalted) supported His prophets and messengers with miracles and wonders which bear witness that they have the support of this AllPowerful, Creator God, as shown previously, so that the people might believe the truth they proclaimed—the Existence of Allah and His Oneness—and the veracity of their call to faith and to belief in all they informed them of. 

The Rational Proof

A. Mutually Contradictory Evidence If it was confirmed to us through our senses that the universe is the epitome of masterful workmanship and perfect order, that would prove that its Creator is One, without partner, neither helper nor rival. In other words, if a disturbance in the equilibrium of the universe were to prov impossible through observable data, and the precision and exactness of its construction could be established through observable data, it would be impossible for it to have more than One Creator. Thus, to propose the existence of more than One Maker, equal in attributes and actions: when their wills diverged—if, for instance, one of them wanted to move an object and the other wanted it to be still and not move—then the following would happen: Either what both of them wanted would happen, which would mean a combination of two contradictory opposites, and that is obviously incorrect, or what both of them wanted would not happen, and this is also invalid because that would be attributing weakness to both of them. Alternatively, one of them would get what he wants at the expense of the other, in which case that one would be the True Lord, and the other a weakling who does not deserve to be worshipped. So, the order of the universe and the precision of its  workmanship proves that its Creator and Designer is One and that He has no partner. And that is Allah Most High. We would like to point out that this Noble Verse

{Had there been therein gods besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined.}

[Al-Anbiyaa' 21: 22]

refersnm to the unity of divinity (tawhid al-uluhiyya), meaning the singling out of Allah (Glorious & Exalted) Alone for worship. This requires admission of the unity of lordship (tawhid alrububiyya), meaning that He (Noble & Sublime) Alone is the Creator.
 The proof of this meaning is that the Arab polytheists conceded the unity of lordship—that the Creator is One God. Thus, the singling out of Allah (Glorious & Exalted), exclusively, for worship—the unity of divinity—does not come until after the unity of lordship—the belief and faith in the fact that He (Glorious & Exalted) Alone is the Creator, without equal or partner. Therefore, the meaning of the Holy Quran is the unity of divinity, which contains the unity of lordship, but not the opposite. This is what the Verse says, {Had there been therein gods besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined.} Indeed, Shaykh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah have mercy on him) alluded to what we have stated

After confirming the Existence of Allah (Glorious & Exalted) through various proof and testimony, and that He (Noble & Sublime) is God, the Creator of this universe and all the creatures and beings therein, then a sound mind can only accept that this Creator God is One God, without partner or peer, and that, based on such, He Alone must be singled out exclusively for worship. None other should be worshipped—not statues, stones, false idols, lies, conjectures or assumptions. Man's pure, good nature and sound mind do not accept anything other than that the slave—the created being—should submit to the power and authority of the One God, the Creator God, and that all worship should be for Him (Noble & Sublime) Alone. It should not be directed toward anyone else. That is because, if the universe had two Creator Deities, with all the creatures and beings therein, or if it had more than two gods, then man, as a subject and creation would be obliged to submit to their authority collectively. He would have to obey them and follow all their orders. Without a doubt, their orders and instructions—these false gods—would necessarily differ, conflict, and clash with each other. At such time, the poor human being, as a subject and creation, would not know which of these orders or instructions to follow, or which of these gods to obey. Then, if this slave creature were to follow the orders and instructions of one o them—these 'gods'—he would subject himself to the anger and punishment of the other, if that were the case. So what would be this slave creature's situation then? Would he be rewarded or punished—or both? Undoubtedly, this scenario is impossible, and no one of pure, good nature would accept it, nor would any sound mind that Allah Most High created us with to ascertain the real truth, not simply conjecture and hypothesis. Indeed, anyone in possession of his pure, good nature and a sound mind would not accept anything other than the fact that this Creator God is One, Singular, without partner or peer, in accordance with the Saying of Allah Most High,

Allah puts forth a similitude

a (slave) man belonging to many partners (like those who worship others along with Allah) disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master, (like those who worship Allah Alone). Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks be to Allah! But most of them know not.  

[Al-Zumar 39: 29] 

This means that this slave man who is owned by competing partners who differ in their desires, goals, and instructions, is not equal to the slave man who is only owned by one master, and is exclusively his. This Quranic metaphor is like the situation of a polytheist who worships other gods beside Allah Most High and the true believer who worships none but Allah Almighty Alone, Who is without peer or partner. So, where is this one compared to that one? Additionally, what we have shown concurs with the Saying of Allah Most High, 

{Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) gods besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined. Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, (High is He) above what they attribute to Him!}

[Al-Anbiyaa' 21: 22]

In other words, if there were other gods besides Allah, the heavens and the earth would be ruined, due to their differences and competition, and subsequently their conflicting orders and instructions, which would clash with and contradict each other, as we have
shown. We would like to point out that: The Noble Verse does not say "if there were two gods therein" because the implied supposition is the existence of many gods being worshipped beside Allah, as was the case of the Arab polytheists. To summarize, it is an intuitive and logical impossibility for the universe to have one or more gods. Therefore, the Creator of this universe and all the creatures and beings therein is Allah Alone (Glorious & Exalted), the Creator of all things, Who has no peer or partner.  

The Saying of Allah Most High

{No son (or offspring or children) did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others!}

[Al-Mu'minoon 23: 91]

This Noble Verse is proof against those who deny the Oneness of Allah Most High, since it addresses man's reason proceeding in accordance with the good nature with which his soul was created, without complicated mental processes. This Noble Verse negates the idea that Allah has a son, so that no one would try to draw near to Him through such a son. In this there is the negation of divinization of intermediaries between Allah (Glorious & Exalted) and His slaves. Furthermore, this Noble Verse negates the idea of there being other gods to be worshipped in partnership with Allah Most High, for if there were those who deserved to be worshipped with Him, there could only be two possibilities:
1) The first possibility: Either each 'god' would be All-Powerful and thus entitled to the first hypothesis, as Allah Almighty says, {behold, each god would have taken away what he had created}, and it is known that this has not happened, and since it has not happened, this proves that the Creator is One God.
2) The second possibility: Or one of them is All-Powerful and the other is not. In other words, one of them is Able and the other is unable. This would prove correct the second hypothesis in Allah's Saying, {and some would have tried to overcome others}, and it is known that this has not happened. This proves the impossibility of the existence of One Able God and one unable 'god.' This means that there exists none other than One God, with Absolute Ability Were the existence of One Able God and one unable 'god' to be supposed, the Able One would be the God to the exclusion of the other 'gods,' but the supposition of other gods beside Allah (Glorious & Exalted) is impossible. So, Allah (Glorious & Exalted) is the One & Only God, Who is without partner or peer.

D. The Saying of Allah,

{"He begets not, nor is He begotten."}

[Al-Ikhlas 112: 3]

This Noble Verse, with its succinct phrasing, indicates the Eternalness of Allah (Glorious & Exalted), and His Exaltation above taking a son. Just as He (Glorious & Exalted) was not born of anything before, He (Noble & Sublime) has not sired anything, since He has no need of such. Thus, Allah (Glorious & Exalted) is the First—the Alpha—and there is nothing before Him; Allah existed when there was nothing other than Him. He does not beget, nor is He begotten, for nothing is born but to die, and that attribute is impossible for Allah (Noble & Sublime). Therefore, let us contemplate the two possible explanations for the existence of gods beside Allah Almighty:
- Who brought them all into existence (for they must have had a progenitor)?
- Did they come from nowhere? From nothing? Impossible, for verily, nothingness
does not bring forth something, because it is a void. Therefore: There must necessarily have been a progenitor for them—another god—
whose abilities supersede all of theirs. Therefore: Who then created this god who created the other gods? Were we to say: The god who created the aforementioned god is another god who commands even higher abilities, then we would have to continue asking this question, and this would lead us into an interminable chain of similar questions with comparable answers. This is impossible for man's pure, good nature or sound mind to accept. Additionally, such hypothetical 'gods' would be created, and thus bound to obey and
worship the One Who created them…and so on. Therefore: There must necessarily be Only One God, beside Whom no one has the
Power to create, and Who Alone possesses the Absolute Power to bring things into being from nothingness. This Creator God must necessarily possess the Attribute of Eternal and Infinite Life—that His Existence is Everlasting and Permanent, Ever-Living, Self-Sustaining forever and ever. No slumber (inattention) overtakes Him, or sleep. He was not born of anything. He exists sufficient unto Himself, not dependent on anyone or anything other than Himself for His Existence. He (Glorious & Exalted) is Ever Existing, Permanent in Himself, for all times. As we have indicated, the answer to the question posed at the beginning of this chapter is: that it is not possible for this universe to have two or more gods, and that Allah (Glorious & Exalted) Alone is God, the Creator of the universe we see and
experience, with all its creatures and beings. He (Glorious & Exalted) Alone is the Creator of all. 

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